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In light of the need to preserve native species and utilize their genetic information in various phylogenetic and conservational studies, we determined the chloroplast (cp) genome sequences of Forsythieae species. Therefore, biogeographic origin of the tribe Forsythieae and their biogeographic patterns of distribution between East Asia and Europe has been not addressed. doi: 10.1007/s10265-010-0383-9 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Kim, K.-J., and Lee, H.-L. Complete chloroplast genome sequences from Korean ginseng (Panax schinseng Nees) and comparative analysis of sequence evolution among 17 vascular plants.
The availability of some cyc2 sequences in Gen Bank for Forsythia and Abeliophyllum allowed the comparison of a common marker from the nuclear genome. The outgroup comprised 16 species from Verbenaceae (3 species), Byblidaceae (2), Carlemanniaceae (2), Plocospermataceae (1), Gelsemiaceae (1), Loganiaceae (1), Strychnaceae (2), and Rubiaceae (4) based on previous phylogenetic analyses (Wallander and Albert, 2000); their sequences were obtained from Gen Bank. Molecular phylogeny of the cosmopolitan aquatic plant genus Limosella (Scrophulariaceae) with a particular focus on the origin of the Australasian L. The sampled taxa, localities, and voucher information are listed in Supplementary Table S1. Within Forsythieae species, analysis of repetitive sequences revealed a total of 51 repeats comprising 26 forward repeats, 22 palindromic repeats, and 3 reverse repeats. japonica; they are morphologically supported by broadly ovate leaves. Distribution patterns in Forsythia indicated that the species were radially differentiated from East China, and the speciation of the European F. Johnson (Oleaceae) is comprised of two genera, Forsythia Vahl and Abeliophyllum Nakai (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group [APG], 2016). Of those, 19 repeats were common and 32 were unique to one or more Forsythieae species. europaea; the three species are characterized by minutely serrate or entire leaf margins. europaea was the result of both vicariance and dispersal in the late Miocene to Pliocene. Abeliophyllum is a monotypic and endemic genus in Korea characterized by samara-type fruits and white flowers (Kim, 2007).