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Non-metallic minerals include many types of materials including sand, gravel and stone, as well as minerals such as salt, gypsum and lithium.
 The years during which the quantities of material resources cease to grow correspond almost precisely to recessionary years.
My analysis indicates that workarounds, in the aggregate, .
Oil prices are at risk, but so are coal and natural gas prices.
Three-year average growth rates of energy consumption and GDP.
Energy consumption growth per capita uses amounts provided in BP 2019 Statistical Review of World Energy.
Many people appear to believe that stimulus programs by governments and central banks can substitute for growth in energy consumption.
Others are convinced that efficiency gains can substitute for growing energy consumption.
To estimate how much growth in energy supply is needed to keep up with the other needs of a growing economy, we can look at per capita historical relationships: Figure 5.This is what we would expect, if it takes material resources to make goods and services, and the laws of physics require that energy consumption be used to enable the physical transformations required for these goods and services. The world economy seems to need an annual growth in world energy consumption of at least 2% per year, to stay away from recession. World energy consumption (Figure 4) follows a very similar pattern to world resource extraction (Figure 2). World Energy Consumption by fuel through 2018, based on 2019 BP Statistical Review of World Energy. “Other Renew” includes a number of kinds of renewables, including wind, solar, geothermal, and sawdust burned to provide electricity.Biofuels such as ethanol are included in “Oil.” Note that the flat periods are almost identical to the flat periods in the extraction of material resources in Figure 2.