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Warm-ups are simple to answer, help capture interest in the survey, and may not even pertain to research objectives.
Transition questions are used to make different areas flow well together.
Thus, the exact formulation of a survey question and its scale are crucial, since they affect the level of measurement error ().
Different tools are available for the researchers to help them decide about this exact formulation of their questions, for instance estimating the quality of a question using MTMM experiments or predicting this quality using the Survey Quality Predictor software (SQP).
Four types of response scales for closed-ended questions are distinguished: A respondent's answer to an open-ended question is coded into a response scale afterwards.
An example of an open-ended question is a question where the testee has to complete a sentence (sentence completion item).
The people who are most likely unbiased either way typically don't respond because it is not worth their time.
Often, questionnaires such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, give too few options to answer; respondents can answer either option but must choose only one response.
Questionnaires also produce very low return rates, whether they are mail or online questionnaires.
An open-ended question asks the respondent to formulate his own answer, whereas a closed-ended question has the respondent pick an answer from a given number of options.
The response options for a closed-ended question should be exhaustive and mutually exclusive.