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This correlation persisted in multivariable analysis: odds ratio of 2.4 (95% confidence interval = 1.2 to 4.6, P = 0.01) for thromboembolic event, and odds ratio of 5.0 (95% confidence interval = 1.9 to 12.8, P ), but not anemia alone, was correlated with poor 1-month outcomes in patients with TBI .Brain dysfunction is frequent during sepsis and is associated with increased mortality and long-term cognitive dysfunction.In a post hoc analysis, however, patients in the lower Hb group had more cortical infarctions, suggesting that higher Hb thresholds may be needed to provide protection from vasospasm-related infarction.In one retrospective analysis of 205 consecutive patients with aneurysmal SAH, there was a higher risk of thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and poor outcome in patients receiving blood transfusion .Reperfusion may be accomplished through administration of intravenous thrombolytic agents, intra-arterial thrombolysis, mechanical thromboembolectomy, ultrasound-enhanced thrombolysis and various combinations of these approaches.
Accurate data from emerging economies, where TBI is increasing due to greater motorization, are lacking, but are likely to be similar or worse .
Acute brain injury, whatever its cause, is associated with considerable short-term and long-term morbidity and mortality.
In the USA it is estimated that 52,000 fatalities arise as a result of traumatic brain injury (TBI) every year, and approximately 5.3 million people live with TBI-related disabilities .
The pathophysiology is complex and poorly understood , but decreased brain perfusion may be a major determinant .
Some studies have shown lower CBF in septic patients than in healthy volunteers, but other factors, such as sedative agents or hypocapnia associated with hyperventilation, may also explain the CBF reduction in such patients.